Russian Constructivism Bauhaus Movement Dada Movement

When we browse the web or read books of design, we find ourselves emerged in the whole process. Whether it's learning about different types of works featured in regards to typography or just getting inspiration to spark your creativity. It is also a important when you know exactly what style that particular designer was influenced by just by looking at his or her work. Learning more about the history of the typography and how it evolved is crucial in the understanding of typography. Where do the font types and creative elements come from? In this section, we will tackle three of the most important eras of type design: Russian Constructivism, Bauhaus and Dada.


Constructivism is early Soviet youth movement created by Vladimir Tatlin that was inspired by Cubism, Suprematism and Futurism. It flourished following the Russian Revolution of 1917 and sought to abolish the traditional artistic composition, and replace it with "construction." Concerned with the use of "real materials in real space", the movement sought to use art as a tool for the common good, much in line with the Communist principles of the new Russian regime.

Objects were to carry out a fundamental analysis of the materials and forms of art not to express beauty or designers views or feelings of any kind. Constructivists, followed this ethic of "truth to materials," as a way to use materials only in accordance with their capacities, and demonstrated the uses to which they could be executed. Constructivist art aimed to show the way materials behaved. The form would be dictated by the materials used. The foundation of Constructivism was to express the experience of modern life and to develop a new form of art more appropriate to the democratic and modernizing goals of the Russian Revolution and build a new society.


Following the end of the World War I German architect Walter Gropius wanted to create a school where industrial methods were not used for destructive wars but for the betterment of social conditions. His response was a bold and yet surprisingly pragmatic utopian vision -- The Bauhaus was the first model of the modern art school. The Bauhaus curriculum combined theoretic education and practical training in the educational workshops. It drew inspiration from the ideals of the revolutionary art movements and design experiments of the early 20th century. By establishing this new kind of art school he managed to create a cultural wonder that continues to have a profound impact to this day.

In 1923, the ideas of "New Typography" started in the Bauhaus. Typography was primarily a communications medium, and was concerned with the "clarity of the message in its most emphatic form". Characteristic for the design were clear, unadorned type prints, the articulation and accentuation of pages through distinct symbols or typographic elements highlighted in color, and finally direct information in a combination of text and photography, for which the name "Typofoto" was created.


Dada was an artistic and literary movement that started in Europe when World War I was going on. Because of the war, many artists, intellectuals and writers, especially those from France and Germany, moved to Switzerland, which was a neutral country. Instead of being relieved that they had escaped, the artists, intellectuals and writers were furious with the modern society. So, they decided to show their protest through artistic medium. They decided to create non-art since art in the society anyway had no meaning.

The so-called non-artists turned to creating art that had soft obscenities, scattered humor, visible puns and everyday objects. The most outrageous painting was created by Marcel Duchamp, when he painted a mustache on a copy of Mona Lisa and scribbled obscenities under it. He also created his sculpture called Fountain, which was actually a urinal without the plumbing and it had a fake signature.

The public were repulsed by the Dada movement. However, the Dadaists found this attitude encouraging. And, slowly the movement spread from Zurich to other parts of Europe and New York City. Just as many mainstream artists were thinking about this movement seriously, the Dada movement dissolved around the early 1920s.